The way it really is: little-known facts about radiometric dating
Many of us believed that string theory was a very dramatic break with our previous notions of quantum theory. But now we learn that string theory, well, is not that much of a break. The state of physics today is like it was when we were mystified by radioactivity. They were missing something absolutely fundamental. We are missing perhaps something as profound as they were back then. Radioactive dating is a key concept in determining the age of the earth.
Many secular scientists use it to dismantle the faith of Radioactive dating fun facts and cause them to accept uniformitarian assumptions that, in addition to being scientifically erroneous, demand a figurative and distorted interpretation of Genesis. Being knowledgeable about such a radioactive dating fun facts dating method is essential for Christians to address opposing arguments and critics. Is radioactive dating valid?
Natural radioactivity was discovered in by the French physicist Henri Becquerel. A decade later, American chemist Bertram Boltwood suggested that lead was a disintegration product of uranium and could be used as an internal clock for dating rocks. He proposed that the carbon in living radioactive dating fun facts might include 14 C as well as non-radioactive carbon.
The protons and neutrons form the nucleus of an atom with approximate diameters ranging from 1. The smallest electron orbitals range from approximately 1. The chemical properties of each element are defined by the number of protons it contains in its nucleus and, consequently, the number of corresponding electrons that orbit it. This feature of nuclear radioactive dating fun facts produces elemental familiesgroups of elements with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons.
Because these families have the same number of protons in nucleus, they also have the same number of electrons orbiting the nucleus and thus exhibit the same chemical behavior. It is the differing number of neutrons that give rise to stable and unstable isotopes radioisotopes within a given elemental family. All elements above Bismuth in the Periodic Table are unstable, i. Alpha decay generally occurs only in the heavier radioactive nuclides, i.
It is this type of radioactive decay which produces radiohalos in rock-contained minerals. As these alpha particles travel through a mineral matrix, they deposit their energy in the mineral itself. This energy damages the crystalline structure of the mineral and leaves in its wake a signature in the form of a series of discolored concentric rings—radiohalos—characteris tic of the radionuclide that produced the alpha radioactive dating fun facts. These radiohalos originate from tiny point-like inclusions of U or some other naturally occurring radioisotope within the crystal.
Unfortunately for the secularist, there are radiohalos formed from what appears to be primordial Po poloniumrather than Po in the form of daughter isotopes from U decay. Due to the extremely short half-lives of the Po isotopes, this would present a serious problem for those wanting to date the rocks at radioactive dating fun facts or billions of years old. Diffusion rates of the 4 He helium —produced by the associated decay chains out of the crystals and the buildup of 4 He in the atmosphere—suggest speed dating tamworth uk only thousands of years of decay have occurred.
These issues will be detailed in subsequent articles. In the processes of beta and positron decay, the radioactive dating fun facts is shared between the emitted beta or positron particles and an antineutrino or neutrino respectively. This makes energy spectroscopy for these decays more challenging than for alpha or gamma decays. If the parent nucleus decays to an excited state of the daughter nucleus for any of the above decays, then gamma rays can also accompany the emitted particles.
Less common modes of decay are direct emission of a neutron or proton, double-beta decay, and spontaneous fission. As with alpha decay, these modes are generally observed in the heavier radionuclides with a few exceptions such as 53 Co proton emission13 Be, and 5 He neutron emission. The process of radioactive decay can be envisioned as an hourglass implanted in a rock suite. The parent radioisotope would be approximately represented by the sand in the upper chamber and the daughter radioisotope what an element slowly turns into through decaying by the sand that accumulates in the lower chamber.
The throughput rate, the rate at which the sand accumulates in the bottom chamber, is characteristic of a specific decay sequence and can be viewed as roughly analogous to the neck of the hourglass, which controls the rate at which the sand falls. See Figure 1 below. Secularists believe that nuclear decay has been a part of the natural world since its formation some The Bible defines this view well in 2 Peter 3: Unfortunately for the secularist, there are serious problems with the uniformitarian view as it is applied to radioactive dating.
One cannot help but wonder what this might say about nuclear decay processes inside stars or large exoplanets. There are significant problems radioactive dating fun facts the radioactive dating methodology currently employed by secularists. The closed-system assumption—so critical to all radioactive dating methods—strains credibility when applied over millions of years. Can any system remain unaffected by its environment over millions of years? The Bible is clear that the earth is relatively young, little more than 6, years old.
An excellent literary argument supporting that position is presented by Steven Boyd, 12 and indeed there have been many others throughout the centuries. When properly applied, science does not contradict this position. Passages such as Psalm In the refreshingly honest words radioactive dating fun facts Dr. Radioactive Dating, Part 2. Cupps is Research Associate at the Institute for Creation Research and received his Ph. Radioactive Dating, Part 1. Proclaiming Scientific Truth in Creation www.
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